CADDS 5 Interactive Surfacing combines and enhances the existing CADDS NURBS with a new, dynamic, interactive surface design tool within the parametric 3D modeling software environment, embedding the resulting surfaces in the model history. This new powerful surfacing capability allows engineers to quickly and freely design complex surfaces using powerful interactive analysis features to validate the result. Existing or imported surfaces can easily and quickly be modified using this exciting new CADDS 5 package.

**This package includes:**

- Interactive Surface Design (ISD)
- NURBS Surface Design
- Rendering with ImageDesign and CADDShade II

Gaussian Curvature Analysis of Aero Engine Cowling.

Interactive Surface Design (ISD) provides a unique design environment to interactively create and modify sculptured and free form curves and surfaces. It combines the powerful capabilities of NURBS based surfacing, an interactive object/action user model, topologically related curves and surfaces and a persistent database.

**Best in Class Surfacing Solution**

With NURBS geometry, users can model complex sculptured shapes faster, more accurately, and with fewer surfaces. For example, NURBS geometry makes it possible to treat the hood of an automobile or the wing of an airplane as a single surface. Other surface types, such as Bezier or standard B-spline, often require many surfaces to define the same geometry.

ISD's user model simplifies the way users interact with NURBS curves and surfaces. This is achieved by providing the users with immediate access to entities for modification, dynamic modification capabilities, and immediate graphics feedback. This allows analysis information for the curves and surfaces to be displayed concurrently while the user is creating or modifying them.

Another benefit of ISD is the relational database which establishes and maintains relations between data sets, curves, surfaces and other ISD objects. This is achieved by providing persistent associations between ISD objects through the history mechanism of the parametric modeling environment. The CADDS 5 parametric part history serves as the permanent storage medium for ISD geometry, information and relations. This utilization of history functionality is transparent and provides access to ISD objects at any step in the design process. Therefore, a model may be constructed with both ISD modeling operations and parametric geometry commands. The model will be regenerated when either a parameter of parametric geometry is changed or an ISD object is modified.

The accuracy and flexibility of Interactive Surface Design software provides an ideal solution for the design of a wide range of unique surfaces, including automobile bodies, aircraft fuselages, ship hulls, and consumer products.

- Graphical user interface guides you through the design process
- Create curve and surface models without having to deal with the mathematical concepts
- Highly interactive object/action paradigm
- Free form and functional design approach gives user the freedom to implement aesthetic and analytical designs
- High degree NURBS based geometry
- Topologically related curves and surfaces
- Persistent database
- Dynamic display of shape analysis information displayed simultaneous with interactivity
- Advanced rendering capabilities allow fast and effective communication through the complete process chain involving internal and external customers

**User Model**

- Highly interactive user interface
- Simple creation/modification techniques
- Curve and surface modification through the use of menus and graphic handles
- Object action interface in lieu of the typical CADDS 5 command based user interaction
- Dynamic display of shape analysis information displayed simultaneous with interactivity
- On-line help

**Parametric Implementation**

- Persistent database
- Dependency ordered curves and surfaces
- Immediate regeneration during modifications
- Tight integration into parametric modeling
- ISD and parametric geometry co-exists in the same database
- Users may reference either parametric geometry from ISD or ISD geometry from parametric modeling
- Changes in either parametric or ISD geometry are automatically propagated during model regeneration
- UNDO operation to revert back to the previous action

**Geometry Structure **

- Ordered Sets of Data for curve or surface
- Tangency and curvature constraints data points
- Create precise or smoothed curves from data that respect these constraints
- Derived curves from existing curve that adhere to Laws and equations
- One surface interface produces output depending on input data
- Blend curves in one or two directions
- Loft along multiple guides with multiple profiles or geometric methods
- Adherence to constraints. External constraints (tangency at boundaries). Internal constraints (parameterization)
- Respect existing C0, C1, C2 joint constraints
- Define Cplanes to enable flexible geometry creation
- Assign or remove Tag names of entities

**Topological Database Structure**

- Polycurve/Polysurface - Classic face-edge-vertex topologically related curves and surfaces, fully compatible with B Rep solid models
- A Polycurve - set of contiguous curves (segments) joined together to form a single curve. It can live in 3D space or be constrained to live on a shell where it will reside in U, V parameter space. Each curve segments has certain constraints at the joints (continuity). This continuity is maintained during creation or regeneration
- Polycurves generate Polysurfaces
- A Polysurface is a quilt of contiguous surface patches joined together to form a single surface. Each patch has certain constraints at the edges (continuity)

**Data set Handles**

- Data point, tangent vectors, radius of curvature vectors
- Data set

**Data set Operations **

- Used for curve and Surface creation and analysis tools
- Ordered sets of data, place free, at parametric location or free "on surface" locations
- Project on surface
- Read from file, write to a file, generate from existing curve or surface geometry
- Replace existing data set with one from file
- Tangency and curvature constraints any data point
- Add, remove, fix or suppress individual data points
- Data reduction
- Tagging enabling downstream operations, such as extract iso curves, derive or create a curve based on lofted and net surfaces

**Curve Handles**

- Location on the curve, tangent vectors, radius of curvature vectors
- Vertices of the control polygon, interpolation points, inflection points, min/max radius of curvature, knot points
- Select individual segments of a multi segment curve of individual faces of a multi faced shell for reporting

**Curve Operations**

- Generate smooth curve or family of curves through one or more data sets, tangency and curvature control at any data point, fix or suppress data points
- Generate smooth curve or family of curves through one or more data sets mirrored about a plane
- Exact polygon or exact interpolation options
- Accurate fitting of unevenly spaced points
- Uniform or chord length parameterization options
- Create surface curves from iso-curves, projected curve or intersection curves
- Dynamically or explicitly drag a polycurve
- Fillet between two planer or nonplaner multisegment polycurves or surface curves
- Create a Geodesic of specified length in a given direction from a pton on a surface curve or on a curve geometrically lying on the surface
- Join and Divide curves
- Create a copy of a section curve and save it in the Parametric History Database
- Create a polygon curve using model references like 'end' and 'mid' of
- Create pton on multisegment polycurves

**Derived Curve Operations **

- Derive curve from existing curves that adhere to laws and equations. The following features are available where applicable:
- Adjust distinct points by dynamic drag, (position w/dependency or explicitly)
- Adjust curvature or tangency handles (dynamic drag or position explicitly)
- Toggle through ambiguous solutions
- NO TRIM option allows modification of base curves

**Derived Curve Types **

- Blend - Tangent or curvature Blend between two curves, adjust deformation points
- Matching - Tangent or curvature, position of match point, adjust deformation points
- Fillet - two or more curves, optional trimming, closed loop option, non-planar fillets with control over fillet shape. Fillets now consistent with other derived commands
- Divide - equally spaced or at a location
- Offset - constant, cubic or linear offsets, adjust start point, adjust end point
- Trim - adjust start point, adjust end point
- Extend - with tangency continuity, curvature continuity or maximum continuity, preview adjust start point, adjust end point
- Join - single curve or poly curve option
- Fair - adjust start point, adjust end point
- Generate 3D curves from two 2D views
- Project curves onto surfaces

**Curve Modification Operations**

- Curve modification by dragging or explicitly moving one or more interpolant, polygon, data and point on curve (pton) points
- Constrain curve modification - with boundary constraints, tangency constraints or curvature constraints
- Curve modification by adding or removing interpolant, polygon, or data points
- Curve modification by adjusting tangent, curvature handle at a pton on curve
- Curve modification by adjusting curvature graph

**Curve Shape Analysis Options**

- Display a bounding box
- Project curve on plane of a bounding box
- Create a point on curve (pton) on a curve. Display and query pton information such as parameter value, tangent vector and radius of curvature
- Display curvature, radius or curvature or unit normals
- Display and query polygon points
- Display and query interpolant points
- Display inflection points
- Display and query knots
- Display deviations
- Display and query min/max radius of curvature
- Display curvature on graph form

**Surface Handles**

- Location on the surface
- Tangent plane
- Normal vectors
- Iso-U and Iso-V curve
- Vertices of the control polygon
- Interpolation points
- Vector Field

**Surface Creation **

- Interpolate surface across section curves in one direction. Respect tangency constraints at edges with control of magnitude
- Blend a surface through section curves in two directions. Respect tangency constraints at boundaries
- Blend a surface through boundary curves in two directions. Respect tangency constraints at boundaries
- Create a surface directly from data sets
- Create a surface directly from polygon net
- Loft a surface by blending a profile along one or more guide curves. The guides define an implicit geometric shape such as an arc with given radius controlled by laws
- Loft a surface using user-defined profiles, one guide sweep profile and two guide multiple profiles
- Loft a Surface blending one or more closed three-dimensional profiles along a centre guide curve
- Constrain a lofted surface using a tangent vector field
- Selectively scale the profiles while creating a multi-profile loft using two guide curves
- Profile positioning using Loft Profile menu
- Mapping of points between profiles
- Geometric loft surface
- Two Guide simple ellipse
- Two Guide using Line profile
- Three Guide super ellipse
- Interpolation loft
- Control point loft
- Shell loft
- Draft Line Uni- and bi-directional Method
- Draft Line up to a plane

**Surface Modification **

- Modify input curves
- Modify external constraints
- Free form modification with pton or polygon point manipulation
- Limit deformation with rectangle (in u-v space)
- Modify normal vector at pton
- Move polygon point(s)
- Add knot points
- Divide a lofted surface at the joint of a guide polycurve that has a curvature discontinuity.
- Modify DEGREE or change U and V parameters of basic or lofted surface

**Shape Analysis Options**

- Create a point on the surface (pton). Display and query pton information such as parameter value, tangent plane and Normal vector
- Display iso curve at pton. Dynamically drag pton on surface. Dynamically displays and updates surface curvature on the iso curve
- Display an array of unit normal vectors
- Display and query vertices of the control polygon
- Display and query interpolation points
- Display and query curve on Surface
- Display and query vector field
- Display and query knots
- Analyze tangency and curvature match between contiguous entities
- Create and analyze a family of section curves
- Measure minimum or maximum of minimum distance between two objects
- Display a geodesic curve on surface
- Dynamic sectioning allows the display of a section curve on the surface with the movement of a section plane
- Highlight Dependency shows items dependant upon the selected item

**Shade Analysis **

- Shaded analysis options with immediate input to tessellation quality
- Analyze surface(s) quality based on gaussian curvature
- Analyze surface(s) quality based on a given draft angle and "pull" direction with color index
- Define and dynamically modify different types of light sources such as point, directional and spotlights for rendering a model
- Analyze surface(s) quality based on highlight lines. For a given a vector, highlight areas on the surface that are normal to the vector
- Reflection analysis showing the reflection lines of all surfaces in a view
- Save resource settings for all Shade Surface menu options
- Save light source settings in the parametric database when filing part
- Selectively shade the faces of a shell or a shell from a view

**Working Preferences **

- Ambiguity checking
- Drag in view space or drag in 2D space
- Visibility Setup
- Global Setup

NURBS Surface Design is the world's leading implementation of Non Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) technology for interactive sculptured and free-form surface modeling.

The accuracy and flexibility of NURBS Surface Design software in CADDS 5 provides an ideal solution for the design of a wide range of unique surfaces, including automobile bodies, aircraft fuselages, ship hulls, and consumer products.

With NURBS geometry, users can model complex sculptured shapes faster, more accurately, and with fewer surfaces. For example, NURBS geometry makes it possible to treat the hood of an automobile or the wing of an airplane as a single surface. Other surface types, such as Bezier or standard B- spline, often require many surfaces to define the same geometry.

NURBS Surface Design software offers many features, including powerful curve and surface smoothing algorithms, surface editing, and graphical surface and curve analysis. NURBS geometry is integrated with CADDS 5 analysis, detailing, and numerical control applications. NURBS surfaces can be incorporated into parametric and explicit solid models to meet challenging surface requirements. It is also upwardly compatible with the Bezier geometry of Advanced Surface Design.

**Benefits**

- Graphical user interface guides you through the design process. Extensive forms and panels clearly delineate the available options, while intelligent defaults minimize user input, allowing you to concentrate on the design.
- Allows large complex shapes to be modeled with a small number of large, low-degree curves and surfaces, which are more stable and easier to work with than high-degree Bezier geometry. As a result, operations such as smoothing, intersecting, and offsetting are faster and more accurate.
- Local editing capabilities allow you to alter a portion of a selected curve or surface without affecting the rest of the surface.
- Provides powerful capabilities for fitting smooth, fair curves through large numbers of data points, even when the points are unevenly spaced or have considerable "noise."
- Allows multiple contiguous curves to be joined into a single NURBS curve with no loss of accuracy.
- Advanced surface generation capabilities let you create surfaces by interpolating through a section of curves, by blending a net of curves and cross-curves, or by blending boundary curves of an existing surface to create a smooth tangential surface.
- Multiple surfaces can be linked logically, or "sewn," into composite surfaces. This provides for easier handling and can be used to generate sewn solids. In addition, composite surfaces can be unsewn, modified, and resewn.
- Variable radius fillet surfaces can be created with fine control over fillet profile shape, blending options at non- tangent corners, and surface trimming.
- Curve and surface evaluation capabilities provide complete graphical and numerical feedback.

**Features**

**User Interface **

- Multistate icons
- Pop-up menus, property sheets, run-time lists
- On-line help
- Menu customization

**Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Geometry**

- Represents arcs and conics without approximation
- Represents up to 15th order Bezier and B-Spline geometry without approximation
- Unlimited number of control points per entity

**Topological Database Structure**

- Classical face-edge-vertex topology, fully compatible with B Rep solid models
- Trim curves, with full ability to untrim
- Trim surfaces, with full ability to untrim
- Sew multiple surfaces into composite surfaces and solids
- Extract composite and stand-alone surfaces from B-Rep solids

**Curve Generation Operations**

- Automatic generation of smooth curves through digitized points
- Least squares fit or exact interpolation options
- Accurate fitting of unevenly spaced points
- Uniform or chord length parameterization options
- Tangency and curvature control
- Intersect surfaces with high accuracy
- Generate 3D curves from two 2D views
- Project curves onto free-form surfaces
- Generate non-planar fillets with extensive control over fillet shape
- Generate 3D offset curves

**Curve Modification Operations**

- Convert arcs, conics, and high-order Bezier curves to NURBS curves
- Deform curves to match in tangency and curvature
- Join multiple arcs, conics, lines and curves into a single NURBS curve
- Stretch curves
- Extend curves in tangential or radial direction

**Surface Generation Operations**

- Interpolate surface across section curves
- Blend surface between three or four boundary curves or surfaces
- Blend surface across net of curves and cross-curves
- Sweep profile along curve
- Profile offset and twisting options
- Generate flange-shaped sweep along sculptured surface
- Loft profiles along guide curves, controlled by laws and spine curves
- Generate offset surfaces
- Generate high-accuracy fillet surfaces
- Circular, non-circular, or curvature matching fillet profile
- Uniform or variable radius fillets

**Surface Modification Operations**

- Deform surfaces to match in contiguity and tangency
- Extend surfaces in tangential or radial direction
- Convert poly-conic and high-order Bezier surfaces to NURBS surfaces
- Divide surfaces into smaller surfaces

**Shape Analysis Options**

- Interactive evaluation of numeric information from curves and surfaces
- Coordinates of digitized points
- Tangent, normal, and osculating plane
- Minimum, maximum, and local radius of curvature
- Display of tangent and normal direction indicators
- Display control points or control polygon
- Analyze tangency and curvature match between contiguous entities
- Gaussian or principal curvature shading
- Reendering via Imagedesign (optional)
- "Lines of light" surface analysis

Users can apply extensive color, surface, and lighting effects definitions that combine to produce sophisticated images of the model. The user can also save the image for reference or for downstream activities.

**Benefits**

- Easy detection of both surface and face irregularities
- Intuitive disclosure of interferences between components based on clearly differentiating colors for each object in the model
- Shaded-picture representations that are accurate and flexible enough to be used by technical publications, marketing communications, and other non-design groups
- Improved communication based on clear, unambiguous images for design reviews and visual evaluation

**Features**

**Surface Characteristics **

- Roughness
- Tweed
- Corduroy
- Brushed metal
- Matte (Gouraud light model)
- Specularity (Phong light model)
- Transparency

**Lighting Effects**

- Up to eight different light sources
- User definable ambient and background light level
- Support for shadows

**Surface Analysis**

- Gaussian curvature analysis of sculptured surfaces

Fully rendered view in CADDS single graphics window.

All CADDS 5 foundation products include a basic shading capability enabling views to be rendered as shaded or hidden line as a 'snapshot'. The rendered view may be manipulated dynamically using the mouse or 3D navigation devices.

CADDShade II provides extensive interactive shading and hidden line removal capabilities that may be applied to CADDS surface, solid and AEC models, such as routed systems and structural items during the modelling process. The rendering takes place in the graphics window and different rendering states can be applied to different views of the active drawing. Rendering states may be maintained or turned off during dynamic manipulation of views. If turned off, the dynamic manipulation occurs in wire frame mode, but returns rendered once dynamic motion is complete.

CADDShade II allows you to interactively generate, manipulate, and edit colour-shaded and hidden-line-removed images on the workstation screen and view from any angle. The software enables users to visually interpret a model's three-dimensional qualities and thus detect interferences, surface errors, mismatches, and missing or overlapping objects.

**Benefits **

- Accelerates design through faster validation of surface, solid and AEC models, without the ambiguities of a three-dimensional wireframe representation
- Increases the reliability of designs, since users can immediately discover problems or interferences
- Fosters communication using clear, unambiguous images for design reviews and visual evaluation
- Speeds generation of annotated drawings
- Reduces training requirements due to the icon-driven user interface

**Features **

- Interactive manipulation and editing of rendered images including Shaded, shaded with wire frame, hidden line and hidden line dashed representation
- Supports different rendering states for each view of a drawing
- Translucency capability for individual objects within part mode or viewed part in assembly mode applied to all views in drawing
- Ability to define level of translucency from semi-opaque to completely see through
- Mixed-mode rendering allows different combination of shaded and wireframe display of items within part mode or parts within assembly mode for each view of a drawing
- Full Colour shading
- Set background colour
- User-specifiable ambient lighting levels, colour and sources
- Multiple light sources
- Overlaying of drawing mode annotations
- Quality slide bar to control level of tessellation detail on-the-fly

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